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8 Avian Ecology and Conservation: A Pennsylvania Focus with National Implications EDITED BY SHYAMAL K. MAJUMDAR, Ph.D. Kreider Professor Emeritus of Biology Lafayette College Easton, PA 1842 TERRY L. MASTER, Ph.D. Professor of Biology East Stroudsburg University of Pennsylvania East Stroudsburg, PA 1831 MARGARET C. BRITfINGHAM, Ph.D. Professor of Wildlife Resources Penn State University ( University Park, PA 1682 ROBERT M. ROSS, Ph.D. Research Ecologist Northern Appalachian Research Laboratory United States Geological Survey (retired) Wellsboro, PA 1691 ROBERT S. MULVIHILL, M.S. Field Ornithologist Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Powdermil1 Avian Research Center Rector, PA JANE E. HUFFMAN, Ph.D. Professor of Microbiology East Stroudsburg University of Pennsylvania East Stroudsburg, PA 1831 A Publication of The Pennsylvania Academy of Science